Developing strategies to end hunger
 

President's Global Development Council's Report for a Post-2015 Era

This year, 2015, is a significant year in the history, as well as the future, of global development. For example, September this year, 2015, will mark the sunset of the Millennium Development Goals, and usher in the more ambitious post-2015 development agenda. The MDGswhich were adopted in the year 2000—have provided a unified agenda for addressing the world’s most pressing development challenges, including hunger and extreme poverty. As articulated in the Millennium Declaration,  the MDGs promised to uphold the principles of human dignity, equality and equity, as well as work toward a world free from hunger and extreme poverty.

Over the last decade, the world has seen tremendous progress, and several MDG targets have been met. Most notably, the world has reduced extreme poverty by half. According to a report by the United Nations, in 1990, almost half of the population in developing regions lived on less than $1.25 a day. This rate dropped to 22 percent by 2010, reducing the number of people living in extreme poverty by 700 million. Although the hunger target has not been achieved, it is within reach. The proportion of people who suffer from chronic hunger continues to decline, but immediate additional efforts are needed to reach the MDG target. This is where the post-2015 agenda comes in.

 

Over the last two years, Member States of the United Nations have been working to define Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as part of the post-2015 development agenda. The SDGs will carry on with the “unfinished agenda” of the MDGs, including, to end hunger and extreme poverty by 2030. This agenda will be adopted by Member States at the Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015.

But the world has dramatically changed since the year 2000, when the MDGs were adopted, so that achieving the promise of the SDGs cannot adopt a  "business as usual" approach. For example, in 2000, the world’s poor people lived in low-income but mostly stable countries. Today, however, it is estimated that middle-income countries and fragile states are home to over 70 percent of the world’s poor people. This means that for the world to achieve the ambitious SDGs by 2030, national governments, the international community and citizens around the world must commit to work differently to address today’s complex realities. The United States, and its partners must ensure that commitments made through the SDGs focus on outcomes, and that efforts to achieve these goals “leave no one behind”, including those living the the Least Developed Countries (LCDs), and fragile states.

As the 2015 deadline to achieve the MDGs nears, and as the world prepares to adopt the SDGs in September this year, experts n global development are thinking ahead. Last week, the President’s Global Development Council (GDC) released its second annual report, highlighting 5 recommendations for the U.S. government’s engagement in a rapidly changing post-2015 development landscape:

  • Further galvanizing the private sector;
  • Promoting sustainable growth while building resilience to climate change;Driving innovation for development results;
  •  Increasing collaborative resource mobilization for development; and
  • Further catalyzing economic opportunities for women and youth, especially in megacities.

The 2015 full report of the GDC can be found here.

Faustine_Typepad

167 Million Fewer Hungry People in the World, But Sustained Funding Is Still Needed

The number of hungry people in the world has dropped below 800 million for the first time, according to this year’s State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) report, released today. The report, authored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, and the World Food Program, takes stock of the progress being made toward global hunger goals.

SOFI_2015The report identifies what still needs to be done as the world transitions to the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, which will follow the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) when they sunset this year. In 1996, 182 countries at the World Food Summit committed “… to eradicate hunger in all countries, with an immediate view to reducing the number of undernourished people to half their present level no later than 2015.” The first of eight MDGs, all adopted in 2000, encapsulates this commitment, including the target “cutting in half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by the year 2015.”

So how is the world doing?

The report reviews progress for every country and region. The news is good overall -- improvements outweighed setbacks. But as can be expected with such a broad and ambitious worldwide goal, problem areas remain, and in some regions hunger is still a stubborn problem.

Twenty-five years ago there were a billion hungry people. According to the new SOFI report, this number has now dropped to 795 million. The countries that improved the most had two features in common: strong economic growth that included investments in poor people, agriculture, and food production; and relative political stability. These countries were largely in East Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean. A solid majority of countries (72 of 129) have met the ambitious target of cutting hunger in half.

These are certainly impressive achievements. Consider that natural disasters, civil and regional conflict, and weak governments can damage to poor countries disproportionately. Also, the world population has grown rapidly: it is higher by 1.9 billion people than it was in 1990. Predictions of widespread famine have for the most part not come true, but certainly there have been famines, such as the 2011 one in Somalia that killed at least 100,000 children younger than 5.

Sub-Saharan Africa’s hunger rate is still more than 33 percent, and more African countries (24) are experiencing food insecurity now than in 1990. Hunger rates in countries with continuing crises are more than three times higher than elsewhere, according to SOFI. In Africa and South Asia, “progress has been slow overall, despite success stories at country and sub-regional levels … there is no one size fits all solution.”

This is why sustaining the development work being done in USAID’s flagship hunger and poverty reduction initiative, Feed the Future, is so important. Feed the Future’s focus areas were developed specifically to sustainably reduce global poverty and hunger. It has demonstrated progress in “significantly reduc[ing] both poverty and stunting (a measure of chronic food insecurity)” in countries where it operates, and adequate funding is essential so this progress can continue.    

Scott Bleggi

Nutrition in the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Seizing the Opportunity

 

Photo for SCNBy Asma Lateef

On May 20,, the United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition released its annual publication, SCN News 41. This year’s edition focuses attention on the opportunities to end malnutrition in all its forms in the post-2015 development agenda. As the international community negotiates this agenda, which will be adopted in September to succeed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), there are high hopes that the next set of goals, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), will be bold and visionary. For the first time in history, global goals would aim to end extreme poverty and hunger. They would set a deadline of 2030 to accomplish this.

This issue of SCN News features voices from governments, civil society, academia, expert groups, U.N. agencies, the private sector, and the Scaling Up Nutrition Movement—representing very broad consensus that good nutrition is key to ending extreme poverty and preventable child deaths. It is also critical to improving education and health outcomes.

Three agreements reached this year—in September on the SDGs, at the Financing for Development conference in July, and at the climate change conference in December—will set global priorities and guide actions for the next 15 years. The articles in this issue make the case that how nutrition is positioned and resourced is important. The international community has recognized the urgency of reducing maternal and child undernutrition and of responding to the growing crisis of overweight and obesity.  The Scaling Up Nutrition Movement, now with 55 member countries, promotes nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive actions across sectors, especially agriculture, health, education, gender, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The World Health Assembly (WHA) has endorsed six targets on maternal and child nutrition and a global action plan on non-communicable diseases. The Second International Conference on Nutrition reaffirmed support for these and called for a decade of action on nutrition.

Given the importance of nutrition to sustainable development, it is significant that the SDG negotiators support a goal to improve food security and improved nutrition for all, with targets on stunting and wasting. Over the next few months it will be important that advocates make the case that along with these goals and targets, the post-2015 development agenda should include nutrition indicators across goals -- to reinforce the fact that it will take a multi-sectoral approach to end malnutrition in all its forms. This issue includes a proposal to adopt all six WHA targets, plus dietary diversity among women and budget allocation for nutrition, as indicators. These indicators serve multiple goals and would drive progress towards ending malnutrition in all its forms. As guest editor of this issue of SCN News, it is my hope that its impressive contributions and perspectives on nutrition will inspire many more people to get involved in making the case for nutrition in the SDGs. Now is the time to educate and advocate. 

Asma Lateef

A Bi-Coastal Vizathon to Expose Hidden Hunger

Hidden-Hunger-Visathon-Announcment-Image, SF Register button, SF Register button, Washington, DC Register button, online

We're excited to announce our second annual HelpMeViz Data Vizathon event. On Saturday, May 30, we will partner with HelpMeViz.com and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) to bring back our community of data heroes -- coders, data scientists, designers, and data visualizers -- to help shed light on the elusive problem of hidden hunger in the developing world. We’re especially happy to be expanding this year’s vizathon to two volunteer sites—one on the East Coast in Washington, DC, and the other on the West Coast in San Francisco.

IFPRI and Bread for the World Institute have drawn from several brand new hunger and nutrition data sets from Africa South of the Sahara to develop two data visualization challenges centered on two forms of  'hidden hunger':

Challenge 1: Exposing Hidden Hunger

“The ‘hidden hunger’ due to micronutrient deficiency does not produce hunger as we know it. You might not feel it in the belly, but it strikes at the core of your health and vitality.”  -Kul C. Gautam, former deputy executive director of UNICEF

Find a way to bring the problem of hidden hunger out of the shadows. Use the latest global data on micronutrient deficiencies to expose the story of hidden hunger and its massive human costs.

  • Demonstrate the mounting costs of hidden hunger (in lost potential, years, GDP, etc.).
  • Combine data with graphic art and photos to humanize the problem of hidden hunger, giving it a name and a face.

Challenge 2: Showing How Hunger Feeds Obesity:

Use new data on obesity and body mass index (BMI) to tell the story of obesity’s stunning rise across the developing world and the array of health problems that are beginning to mount as a result. This will mean finding ways to count the economic and health costs of obesity as well as showing the gaps in national healthcare systems being revealed by the rise in obesity. 

You can read more details on the data challenges at the event announcement on HelpMeViz.com.

Vizathon Details

HelpMeViz, IFPRI, and Bread for the World Institute are inviting up to 50 guests to each site on Saturday, May 30, from 9:30 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. to work on these two challenges. The Institute will provide the challenge data and space for participants to work. Breakfast, lunch, and afternoon snacks will be provided. Participants will also receive a printed copy of the 2016 Hunger Report, which focuses on hunger and health and will be released in November 2015.

The event will be blogged live on HelpMeViz. We hope that interested people all over the world will want to lend their voice and their skills to respond to these challenges. Data will be made available at the beginning of the event. Visualizations, conversations, and comments from both coasts and elsewhere will be posted to the vizathon’s website in real time.

If you would like to attend in Washington, DC, or San Francisco, click the links below to register.

Washington, DC: Register to attend the HelpMeViz 2015 Vizathon at the Washington, DC site.

San Francisco: Register to attend the HelpMeViz 2015 Vizathon at the San Francisco, CA site.

Participate Online: Register to participate in the HelpMeViz Vizathon online from anywhere!

Progress on Extreme Poverty: When the Numbers Don't Match the Proportions

By Michele Learner Photo for numbers versus proportions

The world has made an impressive amount of progress against hunger and poverty in the past two generations. Most people in the United States don't realize this. It's not a discrete event, so it doesn't attract much media coverage. Besides, the violence, diseases, natural disasters, and other bad news so prominent in news outlets are enough to give anyone pause when the United Nations and organizations like Bread for the World announce that the world can end hunger by 2030. Do we know what we're talking about?

For those who follow the news in developing countries closely, as most Institute Notes readers do, there's another reason for pause. The world met the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of cutting extreme poverty in half -- ahead of schedule, even. We have reported, as have many others, on the impressive and sustained economic growth rates in a number of African countries. So far, so good. But the number of people in Africa who live on less than $1.25 a day is growing.

Why? Brookings Institution analyst Laurence Chandy tackles the question head on. Growth in sub-Saharan Africa has been gaining momentum for 20 years now, averaging 5.2 percent a year since 1995. "Meanwhile," Chandy says, "the number of people on the continent reportedly living under $1.25 a day has continued to creep upwards from 358 million in 1996 to 415 million in 2011—the most recent year for which official estimates exist."

Chandy points out that fortunately, the evidence does not show that this is because all the gains from economic growth are going to the very wealthiest people. And the proportion of Africans who live in extreme poverty has in fact decreased -- Africa is not an exception to the world's success in cutting extreme poverty in half.  Sub-Saharan Africa's extreme poverty rate is still far too high, and that's an understatement. In the most recent data, again from 2011, 47 percent of the population lived on less than $1.25 a day. But that's down from 60 percent in 1996.

Chandy's piece lists five contributing factors to the "rising numbers despite progress" conundrum:

  • Starting from a greater depth of poverty -- poor people in Africa are, on average, further than poor people in other developing regions from the $1.25 a day threshold. The 2011 figures were 74 cents for Africans, 98 cents for others, so actually crossing the poverty threshold will take a longer period of progress.
  • Starting from a high level of inequality -- if Africa were one country, its income inequality rate would be higher than Latin America's. Thus, only part of the economic growth is going toward reducing extreme poverty.
  • Rapid population growth -- at 2.6 percent a year, compared with the world average of 1.1 percent, the growing economic pie must be cut into more slices.
  • A degree of mismatch between the economies doing well and those where many poor people live. Some of the poorest countries have been growing rapidly (Ethiopia, Mozambique), while others (notably the very populous Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC) have not.
  • Problems with the quality of data. The data is from household surveys, whose results are affected by challenges in a variety of data collection and analysis tasks. Efforts are being made to improve its accuracy. For example, forthcoming new data from Nigeria is expected to show that the country's poverty rate is considerably lower, and falling faster, than previously believed. But for now, as Chandy puts it, "As a general rule, aggregate poverty numbers for Africa should be handled with care."

One thing I took away from Chandy's analysis is the importance of continuing to support progress while also exercising more patience. Progress on data is one area that we at the Institute often highlight, whether in an interactive visualization or a blog series such as Data to End Hunger

Population growth is another area that may simply take more time. Having fewer children is something that follows from but, understandably, lags progress on child mortality. Once parents are more confident that their children will survive, population growth often slows. When I was in Bangladesh for Bread in 2012, for example, several women raised the subject of family size and said that although their mothers had had five, six, or seven children, they themselves hoped to have two, perhaps three.

Another takeaway: people in fragile states need more support and solutions. What has happened in the DRC is not only a tragedy for millions of individuals and for a nation rich in natural resources, but an impediment to the progress of sub-Saharan Africa as a whole.

Chandy's conclusion is that while our intuition may tell us that Africa's economic growth is only benefiting the rich or that its size is exaggerated, the discrepancy between the numbers and proportions of people living in extreme poverty is better explained by looking more closely at Africa's poverty data.

Photo credit: Bread for the World

 Michele Learner

 

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